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Studies on EDC

This is the master list of EDC (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals) studies, including BPA, grouped by how they affect the body. This list was moved from a post.

4/23/2016: 45 studies!

Background articles on Bt and Cry toxins
  1. Institute of Science in Society. Learn how Bt toxins work in the gut, they break open cells. They also note the toxicity to mammals. Link here, only abstract is free. ISIS will cease to exist by end of March 2016. An email from Julian Haffagee says they will keep the site up and running though.
  2. Wikipedia: Baccillus thuringiensis. Learn about Bt and the Cry proteins/toxins that GMO plants generate to kill insects. 
Background articles on GMOs
  1. Wikipedia: GMO crops. Learn the different types of GMO crops. Not all GMO crops are bad, but there is serious concern about Roundup Ready crops (which introduce Roundup into the food supply) and crops containing the Bt toxin Cry1A.


Studies by body system or animal affected

Behavior (anxiety, depression, inattention, acting out, etc)

See Neurological section.

Cancer

Josephson, Julian. Chemical Exposures: Prostate Cancer and Early BPA Exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Sep; 114(9): A520. PMCID: PMC1570083.

Cancer, Breast

Mordukhovich I, Beyea J, Herring AH, Hatch M, Stellman SD, Teitelbaum SL, Richardson DB, Millikan RC, Engel LS, Shantakumar S, Steck SE, Neugut AI, Rossner P Jr., Santella RM, Gammon MD. 2016. Vehicular traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP). Environ Health Perspect 124:30-38; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307736.

Nudelman, Janet, MA. State of the Evidence: The Connection Between Breast Cancer and the Environment 2010. Breast Cancer Fund. 2010. 132 pgs.



Cells, human, toxicity to

Mesnage R1, Defarge N1, Spiroux de Vendômois J2, Séralini GE1. Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:179691. doi: 10.1155/2014/179691. Epub 2014 Feb 26. Results: Roundup the most toxic of all the tested pesticides: Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz. Link to NIH abstract. Full study from NIH.


Datasets, public

With public datasets, you can download them and analyze them yourself. The data may come in multiple files, and could be in any format, including specialized statistical software formats. It is up to the user to figure out a way to convert the dataset to a usable format.

NHANES 2007-2008 main page, from CDC. The datasets, including the most recent ones and older ones, are here. Some data in XPT format.

Diabetes

Shankar A, Teppala S. Relationship between Urinary Bisphenol A Levels and Diabetes Mellitus. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;96(12):3822-3826. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-1682. Results: Positive correlation between urine BPA levels and diabetes.

Early Puberty

Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice: A Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network. Marcia E. Herman-Giddens, Eric J. Slora, Richard C. Wasserman, Carlos J. Bourdony, Manju V. Bhapkar, Gary G. Koch, Cynthia M. Hasemeier.  Pediatrics Apr 1997, 99 (4) 505-512; DOI: 10.1542/peds.99.4.505. This study from 1997 also shows early development, likely from EDCs which act like estrogen in the body. Overweight girls are more likely to have early breast development, and EDCs are linked to being overweight also.

Steingraber, Sandra, PhD. The Falling Age of Puberty in US Girls. Breast Cancer Fund. 2007. PDF, 73 pgs. (When puberty arrives earlier, it causes a higher risk of breast cancer for girls later in life.)

Wolff, M. S., Teitelbaum, S. L., Pinney, S. M., Windham, G., Liao, L., Biro, F., … the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers. (2010). Investigation of Relationships between Urinary Biomarkers of Phytoestrogens, Phthalates, and Phenols and Pubertal Stages in Girls. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(7), 1039–1046. http://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901690. Link to NIH full study. Results: They tested urine of people, and found correlation to phytoestrogens (chemicals found in plants, like soy, that act like hormones), phthalates, and phenols (like Bisphenol A, BPA).

Fetal damage

Arisa, Aziz and Samuel Leblancc (University of Sherbrooke). Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reproductive Toxicology. May 2011. Link to Elsevier abstract.

Fish

Kidd KA, Blanchfield PJ, Mills KH, Palace VP, Evans RE, Lazorchak JM, Flick RW. Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 22; 104(21):8897-901. Epub 2007 May 21. PubMed PMID: 17517636; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1874224. NIH abstract. Full study here.

Heart Disease

Melzer, David, et al. Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/2004. Jan 2011, plos.org. Results: higher urine BPA levels associated with higher rates of various types of heart disease. (See table on study for types of heart disease.)

Hormones

Orton, F., Rosivatz, E., Scholze, M., & Kortenkamp, A. (2011). Widely Used Pesticides with Previously Unknown Endocrine Activity Revealed as in Vitro Antiandrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 794–800. http://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002895. Link to NIH abstract. Full EPUB and PDF also available. Results: all 14 pesticides tested showed they messed up male hormones (androgens).

Low doses

Vandenberg, L. N., Colborn, T., Hayes, T. B., Heindel, J. J., Jacobs, D. R., Lee, D.-H., … Myers, J. P. (2012). Hormones and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Low-Dose Effects and Nonmonotonic Dose Responses. Endocrine Reviews, 33(3), 378–455. http://doi.org/10.1210/er.2011-1050. Link to NIH abstract. Full EPUB and PDF also available.

Mental Health, see Neurological section

Misc

Bondzio, Angelika, Ulrike Lodemann, [...], and Ralf Einspanier . Cry1Ab Treatment Has No Effects on Viability of Cultured Porcine Intestinal Cells, but Triggers Hsp70 Expression. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e67079. Published online 2013 Jul 4. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0067079. PMCID: PMC3701575. Funding: This study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through grant SFB 852/1. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Gasnier C1, Dumont C, Benachour N, Clair E, Chagnon MC, Séralini GE. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology. 2009 Aug 21;262(3):184-91. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2009.06.006. Epub 2009 Jun 17.  Link here at NIH.

Seralini has his own webpage

Multiple medical problems studied

Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, et al. Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration With Medical Disorders and Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults. JAMA. 2008;300(11):1303-1310. doi:10.1001/jama.300.11.1303. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with heart disease, diabetes, and abnormal concentrations of liver enzymes.

Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk. 2008-2009 President's Cancer Panel Report. 240pg PDF. "About 41% of Americans will be diagnosed with cancer in their lives, about 21% will die from it."



Neurological, anxiety, depression, ADHD and nervous system problems

- Braithwaite EC, Kundakovic M, Ramchandani PG, Murphy SE, Champagne FA. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms predict infant NR3C1 1F and BDNF IV DNA methylation. Epigenetics. 2015;10(5):408-17. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1039221. PMID: 25875334. Link to NIH abstract.
Subjects: Human
Results: 57 pregnant women were recruited and they self-reported depressive symptoms. Saliva cortisol (a stress hormone) was collected. When the infants were 2 months old, cell swabs were collected and the mothers were evaluated for postnatal depressive symptoms. "Prenatal depressive symptoms significantly predicted increased NR3C1 1F DNA methylation in male infants (β = 2.147, P = 0.044). Prenatal depressive symptoms also significantly predicted decreased BDNF IV DNA methylation in both male and female infants."

- Chen F, Zhou L, Bai Y, Zhou R, Chen L. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity accounts for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A. J Biomed Res. 2015 May;29(3):250-8. doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140058. Epub 2014 Nov 12. PMID: 26060449. Link to NIH abstract.

Subjects: Rats
Results: Rats exposed to BPA in utero showed symptoms of depression and anxiety. "Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent biological findings in anxiety- and depression-related disorders. The HPA axis is reported to be susceptible to developmental reprogramming. The present study focused on HPA reactivity in postnatal day (PND) 80 male rats exposed perinatally to environmental-dose BPA. When female breeders were orally administered 2 μg/(kg.day) BPA from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, their offspring (PND 80 BPA-exposed rats) showed obvious anxiety/depression-like behaviors. Notably, significant increase in serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA were detected in BPA-exposed rats before or after the mild stressor."


- Ejaredar M, Lee Y, Roberts DJ, Sauve R, Dewey D. Bisphenol A exposure and children's behavior: A systematic review. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2016 Mar 9. doi: 10.1038/jes.2016.8. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26956939. Link to NIH abstract.

Subjects: Articles
Results: After sifting through 2811 citations, 11 articles met their inclusion criteria. "Descriptive analyses indicated that prenatal exposure to maternal BPA concentrations were related to higher levels of anxiety, depression, aggression, and hyperactivity in children. BPA exposure in childhood was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, inattention, and conduct problems."


- Fujimoto T, Kubo K, Nishikawa Y, Aou S. Prenatal low-dose bisphenol A enhances behavioral responses induced by a predator odor. J Toxicol Sci. 2015; 40(5):569-75. doi: 10.2131/jts.40.569.
PMID:  26354373. Link to NIH abstract.

Subjects: Rats
Results: Rat were more sensitive to predator odor was when they were exposed to BPA as a fetus.

- Harley KG, Gunier RB, Kogut K, Johnson C, Bradman A, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and early childhood bisphenol A concentrations and behavior in school-aged children. Environ Res. 2013 Oct; 126:43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2013.06.004. Epub 2013 Jul 17. PubMed PMID: 23870093; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3805756. Link to NIH abstract. Link to full study.

Subjects: Human, urine
Results: Prenatal urine concentrations of BPA were correlated with increased anxiety and depression in boys at age 7. No correlation of urine BPA levels were seen with girls at age 7.  Childhood urine BPA levels were correlated with conduct problems with girls at age 7, and with boys at age 7, correlated with inattention and hyperactivity.

- Mustieles V, Pérez-Lobato R, Olea N, Fernández MF. Bisphenol A: Human exposure and neurobehavior. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Jul; 49:174-84. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2015.06.002. Epub 2015 Jun 27. Review.
PMID: 26121921. Link to NIH abstract.

Subjects: Articles
Results: eight out of the twelve available articles that were reviewed, linked BPA to neuro problems, including aggressive behavior, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety impairments, and this occurred mostly in children exposed in utero, indicating disruption of the brain during this critical window of development. Women who plan on getting pregnant should be informed how they can limit their exposure to BPA.

- Patisaul, Heather B., Alana W. Sullivan, Meghan E. Radford, et al. Anxiogenic Effects of Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Are Associated with Gene Expression Changes in the Juvenile Rat Amygdala and Mitigated by Soy. PLOS. Published: September 5, 2012. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043890. Link. Results: BPA linked to neurological problems.

- Ribeiro-Varandas E, Pereira HS, Viegas W, Delgado M. Bisphenol A alters transcript levels of biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder in vascular endothelial cells and colon cancer cells. Chemosphere. 2016 Mar 21; 153:75-77. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.085. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27010169. Link to NIH abstract.

Results: BPA linked to Major Depressive Disorder. "Here, quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) results show that BPA at low concentrations (10 ng/mL and 1 μg/mL) induces differential transcript levels of four biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC)."

- Slomski A. Chronic Mental Health Issues in Children Now Loom Larger Than Physical Problems. JAMA. 2012;308(3):223-225. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.6951. Results: Top 5 issues for kids are now mental health issues. This article simply points to: http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/article-summaries/22-01/.

- Wolstenholme JT, Goldsby JA, Rissman EF. Transgenerational effects of prenatal bisphenol A on social recognition. Horm Behav. 2013 Nov; 64(5):833-9. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Oct 5. PMID: 24100195. Link to NIH abstract. Link to full study.

Subjects: Mice
Results: BPA exposure has long-lasting effects that go on for several generations.


- Xu X, Hong X, Xie L, Li T, Yang Y, Zhang Q, Zhang G, Liu X. Gestational and lactational exposure to bisphenol-A affects anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice. Horm Behav. 2012 Sep; 62(4):480-90. PubMed PMID: 23240141. Link to NIH abstract.

Subjects: Mice
Results: Mice exposed to BPA while they were fetuses, or while they fed on their mother's milk, showed increased anxiety and depression-like behavior.

- Yeoa, Michele, Ken Berglunda, Michael Hannab, Junjie U. Guoc, Jaya Kitturd, Maria D. Torresb, Joel Abramowitzd, Jorge Buscigliob, Yuan Gaoc, Lutz Birnbaumerd,1, and Wolfgang B. Liedtkea. Bisphenol A delays the perinatal chloride shift in cortical neurons by epigenetic effects on the Kcc2 promoter.  PNAS. Jan 2013. Link.

Obesity/Overweight

Carwile JL1, Michels KB. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity: NHANES 2003-2006. Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):825-30. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.05.014. Epub 2011 Jun 14. Results: Higher BPA exposure is associated with general and central obesity in the general adult population of the United States. Reverse causation is of concern due to the cross-sectional nature of this study; longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of the association.
Trasande L, Attina TM, Blustein J. Association Between Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration and Obesity Prevalence in Children and Adolescents. JAMA. 2012;308(11):1113-1121. doi:10.1001/2012. jama.11461. Results: As urine BPA levels rose, so did the obesity rate. From 2013 JAMA: The authors studied other environmental phenols and did not find an association with obesity. 


Products

BPA found in 85% of tampons and feminine pads. From a 2015 Argentina study in Spanish. Machine translated to English.


Reproduction problems

Clair E1, Mesnage R, Travert C, Séralini GÉ. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012 Mar;26(2):269-79. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.12.009. Epub 2011 Dec 19. Results: A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels. Link at NIH. 
Friedrich, MJ. Bisphenol A and Reproduction. JAMA. 2011;305(1):28. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1900. Results: BPA can cause sterility and embryonic death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Richard S1, Moslemi S, Sipahutar H, Benachour N, Seralini GE. Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Jun;113(6):716-20. Results: Roundup toxic to human placental cells. Link to NIH.

Woodruff TJ, Zota AR, Schwartz JM. Environmental Chemicals in Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES 2003–2004. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2011;119(6):878-885. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002727. NIH LinkLots of good references to other studies here. Results: "Pregnant women in the U.S. are exposed to multiple chemicals. Further efforts are warranted to understand sources of exposure and implications for policy making. The percentage of pregnant women with detectable levels of an individual chemical ranged from 0 to 100%. Certain polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, PFCs, phenols, PBDEs, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and perchlorate were detected in 99–100% of pregnant women. The median number of detected chemicals by chemical class ranged from 4 of 12 PFCs to 9 of 13 phthalates."

In below graph, each vertical bar is one participant. Stack bars indicates number of chemicals in each chemical class.

Thyroid

Thyroid Hormone Action is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. July 2, 2013.


Studies By Specific Chemical


BPA

Bisphenol A - Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food. Environmental Working Group. March 2007. Link to paper. Has info on low-dose toxicit and human disease on the rise. 

Screening Assessment for The Challenge. Phenol, 4,4' -(1-methylethylidene)bis-(Bisphenol A). Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 80-05-7. Environment Canada. Health Canada. 2008. Link to paper.  Has table of BPA levels found in food cans. Good hard data.

University of Texas at Arlington. (2014, March 6). BPA linked to breast cancer tumor growth. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 26, 2016 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140306163359.htm

 

Bt CRY1A toxin

Ibrahim MA, Griko N, Junker M, Bulla LA. Bacillus thuringiensis: A genomics and proteomics perspective. Bioengineered Bugs. 2010;1(1):31-50. doi:10.4161/bbug.1.1.10519.  Link to NIH study.

Mesnage, R., Clair, E., Gress, S., Then, C., Székács, A. and Séralini, G.-E. (2013), Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide. J. Appl. Toxicol., 33: 695–699. doi: 10.1002/jat.2712. Abstract here.



Roundup/glyphosphate

Moved to here.



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