This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional “chemical” cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating “substantial non-equivalence” in compositional characteristics for ‘ready-to-market’ soybeans.The study goes on to break down and show the nutrients for the different classes of soybeans (Roundup Ready, conventional pesticides, organic). Differences between organic and other soybean crops:
- The organic soybeans had significantly more barium but no other statistically significant variations were found in the other nutrients measured.
- The organic soybeans had significantly more glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose (all types of sugars).
- Glyphosate has been found in all parts of the plant. It cannot be washed off. Thus, people are ingesting glyphosate wherever glyphosate is sprayed.
Rodale's Organic Life. April 25, 2014.
The study: "Compositional Differences in Soybeans on the Market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM Soybeans." Food Chemistry. June 2014.