Below, the study will be listed first, followed by a summary of the results. Authors are in alphabetical order.
- Braithwaite EC, Kundakovic M, Ramchandani PG, Murphy SE, Champagne FA. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms predict infant NR3C1 1F and BDNF IV DNA methylation. Epigenetics. 2015;10(5):408-17. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1039221. PMID: 25875334. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: 57 pregnant women were recruited and they self-reported depressive symptoms. Saliva cortisol (a stress hormone) was collected. When the infants were 2 months old, cell swabs were collected and the mothers were evaluated for postnatal depressive symptoms. "Prenatal depressive symptoms significantly predicted increased NR3C1 1F DNA methylation in male infants (β = 2.147, P = 0.044). Prenatal depressive symptoms also significantly predicted decreased BDNF IV DNA methylation in both male and female infants."
- Chen F, Zhou L, Bai Y, Zhou R, Chen L. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity accounts for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A. J Biomed Res. 2015 May;29(3):250-8. doi: 10.7555/JBR.29.20140058. Epub 2014 Nov 12. PMID: 26060449. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: Rats exposed to BPA in utero showed symptoms of depression and anxiety. "Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent biological findings in anxiety- and depression-related disorders. The HPA axis is reported to be susceptible to developmental reprogramming. The present study focused on HPA reactivity in postnatal day (PND) 80 male rats exposed perinatally to environmental-dose BPA. When female breeders were orally administered 2 μg/(kg.day) BPA from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, their offspring (PND 80 BPA-exposed rats) showed obvious anxiety/depression-like behaviors. Notably, significant increase in serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA were detected in BPA-exposed rats before or after the mild stressor."
- Ejaredar M, Lee Y, Roberts DJ, Sauve R, Dewey D. Bisphenol A exposure and children's behavior: A systematic review. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2016 Mar 9. doi: 10.1038/jes.2016.8. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26956939. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: After sifting through 2811 citations, 11 articles met their inclusion criteria. "Descriptive analyses indicated that prenatal exposure to maternal BPA concentrations were related to higher levels of anxiety, depression, aggression, and hyperactivity in children. BPA exposure in childhood was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, inattention, and conduct problems."
- Fujimoto T, Kubo K, Nishikawa Y, Aou S. Prenatal low-dose bisphenol A enhances behavioral responses induced by a predator odor. J Toxicol Sci. 2015; 40(5):569-75. doi: 10.2131/jts.40.569.
PMID: 26354373. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: Rat were more sensitive to predator odor was when they were exposed to BPA as a fetus.(Could indicate increased anxiety.)
- Harley KG, Gunier RB, Kogut K, Johnson C, Bradman A, Calafat AM, Eskenazi B. Prenatal and early childhood bisphenol A concentrations and behavior in school-aged children. Environ Res. 2013 Oct; 126:43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2013.06.004. Epub 2013 Jul 17. PubMed PMID: 23870093; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3805756. Link to NIH abstract. Link to full study.
Subjects: Human, urine
Results: Prenatal urine concentrations of BPA were correlated with increased anxiety and depression in boys at age 7. No correlation of urine BPA levels were seen with girls at age 7. Childhood urine BPA levels were correlated with conduct problems with girls at age 7, and with boys at age 7, correlated with inattention and hyperactivity.
- Mustieles V, Pérez-Lobato R, Olea N, Fernández MF. Bisphenol A: Human exposure and neurobehavior. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Jul; 49:174-84. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2015.06.002. Epub 2015 Jun 27. Review. PMID: 26121921. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: eight out of the twelve available articles that were reviewed, linked BPA to neuro problems, including aggressive behavior, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety impairments, and this occurred mostly in children exposed in utero, indicating disruption of the brain during this critical window of development. Women who plan on getting pregnant should be informed how they can limit their exposure to BPA.
- Ribeiro-Varandas E, Pereira HS, Viegas W, Delgado M. Bisphenol A alters transcript levels of biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder in vascular endothelial cells and colon cancer cells. Chemosphere. 2016 Mar 21; 153:75-77. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.085. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27010169. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: BPA linked to Major Depressive Disorder. "Here, quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) results show that BPA at low concentrations (10 ng/mL and 1 μg/mL) induces differential transcript levels of four biomarker genes for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC)."
- Wolstenholme JT, Goldsby JA, Rissman EF. Transgenerational effects of prenatal bisphenol A on social recognition. Horm Behav. 2013 Nov; 64(5):833-9. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Oct 5. PMID: 24100195. Link to NIH abstract. Link to full study.
Results: BPA exposure has long-lasting effects that go on for several generations.
- Xu X, Hong X, Xie L, Li T, Yang Y, Zhang Q, Zhang G, Liu X. Gestational and lactational exposure to bisphenol-A affects anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice. Horm Behav. 2012 Sep; 62(4):480-90. PubMed PMID: 23240141. Link to NIH abstract.
Results: Mice exposed to BPA while they were fetuses, or while they fed on their mother's milk, showed increased anxiety and depression-like behavior.