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Monday, April 4, 2016

Which GMO crops are grown in the US?

As of 2015, over 90% of corn, soybean and cotton crops grown in the US are GMO crops. Corn and soybean make it into the food supply, and there is no consensus among scientists regarding the safety of foods that are Roundup Ready or that contain the Bt Crytoxin.

GMO crops in the US below through 2012.
GMO crops 2000-2012. From MotherJones.com

As of 2015:

  1. 92% of corn planted in the US is GMO. 
  2. 94% of cotton is GMO. 
  3. 94% of soybeans is GMO. 
  4. GMO crops grown in the US:Alfalfa, canola, chicory, corn, cotton, flax, papaya, plum, potato, rice, soybeans, squash, sugarbeets, tobacco, tomato.
  5. GMO crops grown in Canada: canola, maize, soybean, sugar beet.

From ISAAA (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications)  Brief 49-2014 Executive Summary:
  1. In 2013, 27 countries planted 175 million hectares, in 2014 18 million farmers in 28 countries planted  more than 181 million hectares in 2014
  2. This Executive Summary also gives a table of countries growing biotech crops in order of millions of hectares. US is #1 on the list followed by Brazil, Argentina, India and Canada. This table also lists which GMO crops are grown in each country. 
  3. Biotech crop usage has increased from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 181.5 million hectares in 2014.
  4. "...on average GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%."
  5. Farmers agree their productivity and profits have increased, thus there is an almost 100% replant rate. (But that's not the whole story, a significant chunk of these farmers are desperately poor and hungry, trying to feed a burgeoning population any way they can. They cannot afford to look at long-term consequences.)
The ISAAA country table is reproduced here.


Other GMO Crops:
Alfalfa, Canola, Cotton, Eggplant (Bangladesh), Papaya, Pepper, sweet, Potato called Innate™, Soybean, Squash (on Monsanto's page it looks like zucchini), Sugarbeet, Tomato.

Link to more GMO crops

* Not all these crops are Roundup Ready or contain the Bt Crytoxin, the 2 major concerns of GMO crops.

RR (Roundup Ready) Crops in the US: 
Alfalfa, canola, corn, cotton, soybeans, sugarbeets.
Specific brands: Roundup Ready soybeans, Roundup Ready Corn, and Liberty Link corn.

Bt crops containing the Bt Crytoxin:
  1. Bt-potatoes, Bt-corn, Bt-sweet corn.
  2. A type of Bt corn called Starlink™ generates the Cry9a toxin.
  3. More corn trade names: Syngenta Agrisure® CB/LL, DowAgrosciences Pioneer Hi-Bred
    Herculex® I, Monsanto YieldGard® Corn Borer, Monsanto YieldGard® Corn Borer with
    Roundup Ready® Corn 2, Monsanto YieldGard® Rootworm with Roundup Ready® Corn 2, Monsanto YieldGard® Rootworm,  Monsanto Roundup Ready® Corn 2, Bayer CropScience LibertyLink®, Monsanto YieldGard® Plus, Monsanto YieldGard® Plus with Roundup Ready® Corn 2, DowAgrosciences Pioneer Hi-Bred Herculex® I Monsanto Roundup Ready® Corn 2, Syngenta Agrisure® GT, Syngenta Agrisure® GT/CB/LL, Dow AgroSciences Pioneer Hi-Bred Herculex® RW, Dow AgroSciences Pioneer Hi-Bred Herculex® Xtra, Dow AgroSciences Pioneer Hi-Bred Herculex® RW Monsanto Roundup Ready® Corn 2, Dow AgroSciences Pioneer Hi-Bred Herculex® Xtra Monsanto Roundup® Corn 2,  Monsanto YieldGard VT™ Rootworm/RR2®, Monsanto YieldGard VT™ Triple, Syngenta Agrisure® RW, Syngenta® GT/RW,  Syngenta Agrisure® CB/LL/RW, Syngenta Agrisure® 3000GT, Monsanto Genuity™ VT Double PRO™, Monsanto Genuity™ VT Triple PRO™, Monsanto Genuity™SmartStax™
    DowAgrosciences SmartStax™.

Sources

  1. Nielson, RL. A Compendium of Biotech Corn Traits. Purdue University, Dept of Agronomy. May 2010. Link accessed Mar 31, 2016.
  2. Center for Environmental Risk Assessment GM crop database. Link accessed Mar 31, 2016. Search by country, gene, crop, trait (insect resistance, glyphosphate resistance, etc) and more. It also shows a summary of regulatory approvals by country.
  3. Could Prop 37 Kill Monsanto's GM Seeds? Mother Jones. Oct 10, 2012. Link
  4. Genetically modified crops, by state and crop, 2000-2015. Shows varieties in use. Tabs for corn, cotton, soybeans. Top part of each tab is number of GMO crops, bottom part of each tab is percent of seeds planted. USDA.gov. Link to page. Link to Excel XLS file.
  5. James, Clive. 2014. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014. ISAAA Brief  No. 49. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. Link to Executive Summary.  
  6. Roundup Ready crops. Sourcewatch. Link to page.  This also has a nice history of RR crops including resistant weeds.
  7. Top 7 Genetically Modified Crops. Huffington Post. Oct 30, 2012. Link

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